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"Protection against adverse influences is obtained by the existence and enforcement of proper zoning regulations and appropriate deed restrictions." "Important among adverse influences are the following: infiltration of inharmonious racial or nationality groups; the presence of smoke, odors, fog, etc."

FHA Underwriting Manual (August 1, 1935) section 309, section 310


"A Realtor should never be instrumental in introducing into a neighborhood a character of property or occupancy, members of any race or nationality, or any individual whose presence will clearly be detrimental to property values in the neighborhood."

National Association of Real Estate Brokers (NAREB) (Code of Ethics: 1922 -- amended in 1952): Article 34


"If a neighborhood is to remain stable, it is necessary that properties shall continue to be occupied by the same racial and social classes. Changes in social or racial occupancy contribute to neighborhood instability and the decline of value levels."

Frederick Babcock, Director of FHA Underwriting Division (April, 1938), "The Journal of the American Institute of Real Estate Appraisers of the National Association of Real Estate Boards", Volume VI, April 1938, Number 2, p. 137, "Techniques of Residential Location Rating"


"The usual manner of imposing a deed restriction is to insert an appropriate provision in the deed by which property is transferred. The restriction should be in record form in the chain of title of each lot. Otherwise if a lot is sold to a purchaser who has no knowledge of the restriction, he will not be bound by it."

Homer Hoyt, Principal Housing Economist, Division of Economics & Statistics FHA, "Principles of Urban Real Estate" (1948), p. 194